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\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
@setfilename ../../info/orgguide
@settitle The compact Org-mode Guide

@include org-version.inc

@c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
@c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
@set txicodequoteundirected
@set txicodequotebacktick

@c Version and Contact Info
@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Bastien Guerry
@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{bzg at gnu dot org}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:bzg at gnu dot org,contact the maintainer}
@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions
@iftex
@c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
@end iftex

@c Subheadings inside a table.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@macro seealso{text}
@noindent @b{Further reading}@*@noindent \text\
@end macro
@copying

Copyright @copyright{} 2010--2013 Free Software Foundation

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Org Mode Guide: (orgguide).  Abbreviated Org-mode Manual
@end direntry

@titlepage
@title The compact Org-mode Guide

@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@shortcontents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Guide

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::		Getting started
* Document Structure::		A tree works like your brain
* Tables::			Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::			Notes in context
* TODO Items::			Every tree branch can be a TODO item
* Tags::			Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
* Properties::			Properties
* Dates and Times::		Making items useful for planning
* Capture - Refile - Archive::	The ins and outs for projects
* Agenda Views::		Collecting information into views
* Markup::			Prepare text for rich export
* Exporting::			Sharing and publishing of notes
* Publishing::			Create a web site of linked Org files
* Working With Source Code::	Source code snippets embedded in Org
* Miscellaneous::		All the rest which did not fit elsewhere

* GNU Free Documentation License::  This manual license.

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Preface::			Welcome
* Installation::		How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::			How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::			Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.

Document Structure

* Outlines::			Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::			How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::		Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::			Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::		Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Sparse trees::		Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::			Additional structure within an entry
* Footnotes::			How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax

Hyperlinks

* Link format::			How links in Org are formatted
* Internal links::		Links to other places in the current file
* External links::		URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::		Creating, inserting and following
* Targeted links::		Point at a location in a file

TODO Items

* Using TODO states::		Setting and switching states
* Multi-state workflows::	More than just on/off
* Progress logging::		Dates and notes for progress
* Priorities::			Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::		Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::			Tick-off lists

Progress logging

* Closing items::		When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::	 When did the status change?

Tags

* Tag inheritance::		Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::		How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::		Searching for combinations of tags
* Tag searches::		Searching for combinations of tags

Dates and Times

* Timestamps::			Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::		Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::	Planning your work
* Clocking work time::		Tracking how long you spend on a task

Capture - Refile - Archive

* Capture::			Capturing new stuff
* Refile and copy::		Moving a tree from one place to another
* Archiving::			What to do with finished projects

Capture

* Setting up a capture location::  Where notes will be stored
* Using capture::		Commands to invoke and terminate capture
* Capture templates::		Define the outline of different note types

Agenda Views

* Agenda files::		Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::		Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::	What is available out of the box?
* Agenda commands::		Remote editing of Org trees
* Custom agenda views::		Defining special searches and views

The built-in agenda views

* Weekly/daily agenda::		The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::		All unfinished action items
* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::			Time-sorted view for single file
* Search view::			Find entries by searching for text

Markup for rich export

* Structural markup elements::	The basic structure as seen by the exporter
* Images and tables::		Tables and Images will be included
* Literal examples::		Source code examples with special formatting
* Include files::		Include additional files into a document
* Embedded @LaTeX{}::		@LaTeX{} can be freely used inside Org documents

Structural markup elements

* Document title::		Where the title is taken from
* Headings and sections::	The document structure as seen by the exporter
* Table of contents::		The if and where of the table of contents
* Paragraphs::			Paragraphs
* Emphasis and monospace::	Bold, italic, etc.
* Comment lines::		What will *not* be exported

Exporting

* Export options::		Per-file export settings
* The export dispatcher::	How to access exporter commands
* ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export::	Exporting to flat files with encoding
* HTML export::			Exporting to HTML
* @LaTeX{} and PDF export::	Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
* DocBook export::		Exporting to DocBook
* iCalendar export::

Miscellaneous

* Completion::			M-TAB knows what you need
* Clean view::			Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* MobileOrg::			Org-mode on the iPhone

@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction

@menu
* Preface::			Welcome
* Installation::		How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::			How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::			Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
@end menu

@node Preface, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Preface

Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing project
planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.  It is also an
authoring and publishing system.

@i{This document is a much compressed derivative of the
@uref{http://orgmode.org/index.html#sec-4_1, comprehensive Org-mode manual}.
It contains all basic features and commands, along with important hints for
customization.  It is intended for beginners who would shy back from a 200
page manual because of sheer size.}

@node Installation, Activation, Preface, Introduction
@section Installation

@b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
to @ref{Activation}.}

If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, it is best to run it directly from
the distribution directory.  You need to add the @file{lisp} subdirectories
to the Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:

@smallexample
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
@end smallexample

@noindent For speed you should byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell
command:

@smallexample
make
@end smallexample

@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation

Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last three lines
define @emph{global} keys for some commands --- please choose suitable keys
yourself.

@smalllisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode)) ; not needed since Emacs 22.2
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; not needed when global-font-lock-mode is on
(global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
(global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
@end smalllisp

With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
into Org mode. 

@node Feedback,  , Activation, Introduction
@section Feedback

If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
For information on how to submit bug reports, see the main manual.

@node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
@chapter Document Structure

Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
edit the structure of the document.

@menu
* Outlines::			Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::			How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::		Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::			Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::		Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Sparse trees::		Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::			Additional structure within an entry
* Footnotes::			How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
@end menu

@node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
@section Outlines

Org is implemented on top of Outline mode.  Outlines allow a
document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview
of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
currently being worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of
outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.

@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
@section Headlines

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See
the variable @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e} to configure special behavior
of @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} in headlines.}.  For example:

@smallexample
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text

* Another top level headline
@end smallexample

@noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
starters.  @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.

@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
@section Visibility cycling

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@item @key{TAB}
@emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states

@smallexample
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end smallexample

When called with a prefix argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}) or with the shift
key, global cycling is invoked.

@item S-@key{TAB} @r{and} C-u @key{TAB}
@emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

@smallexample
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end smallexample

@item C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
Show all, including drawers.
@end table

When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding a startup keyword @code{overview}, @code{content},
@code{showall}, like this:

@smallexample
#+STARTUP: content
@end smallexample


@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
@section Motion
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@end table

@node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
@section Structure editing

@table @kbd
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is in a plain
list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}).  When this command is
used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line
becomes the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
@item @key{TAB} @r{in new, empty entry}
In a new entry with no text yet, @key{TAB} will cycle through reasonable
levels.
@item M-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
Promote/demote current heading by one level.
@item M-S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
Promote/demote the current subtree by one level.
@item M-S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
Move subtree up/down (swap with previous/next subtree of same
level).
@item C-c C-w
Refile entry or region to a different location.  @xref{Refile and copy}.
@item C-x n s/w
Narrow buffer to current subtree / widen it again
@end table

When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
demotion work on all headlines in the region.

@node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
@section Sparse trees

An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
@code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
control on how much context is shown around each match.}.  Just try it out
and you will see immediately how it works.

Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:

@table @kbd
@item C-c /
This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
@item C-c / r
Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.  Each
match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@end table

The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.

@node Plain lists, Footnotes, Sparse trees, Document Structure
@section Plain lists

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}).  Org supports editing such lists,
and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.

Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
@itemize @bullet
@item
@emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
@samp{*} as bullets.
@item
@emph{Ordered} list items start with @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}.
@item
@emph{Description} list use @samp{ :: } to separate the @emph{term} from the
description.
@end itemize

Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
line.  An item ends before the next line that is indented like its
bullet/number, or less.  A list ends when all items are closed, or before two
blank lines.  An example:

@smallexample
@group
** Lord of the Rings
   My favorite scenes are (in this order)
   1. The attack of the Rohirrim
   2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
      + this was already my favorite scene in the book
      + I really like Miranda Otto.
   Important actors in this film are:
   - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
   - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend.
@end group
@end smallexample

The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
an item (the line with the bullet or number).

@table @kbd
@item @key{TAB}
Items can be folded just like headline levels.
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new item at current level.  With a prefix argument, force a new
heading (@pxref{Structure editing}).
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
@item M-S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
automatic.
@item M-@key{left}@r{/}M-@key{right}
Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
@item M-S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
@item C-c C-c
If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
state of the checkbox.  Also verify bullets and indentation consistency in
the whole list.
@item C-c -
Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
(@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}).
@end table

@node Footnotes,  , Plain lists, Document Structure
@section Footnotes

A footnote is defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in
square brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed.  The footnote reference
is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text.  For example:

@smallexample
The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
...
[fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
@end smallexample

@noindent The following commands handle footnotes:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-x f
The footnote action command.  When the cursor is on a footnote reference,
jump to the definition.  When it is at a definition, jump to the (first)
reference.  Otherwise, create a new footnote.  When this command is called
with a prefix argument, a menu of additional options including renumbering is
offered.

@item C-c C-c
Jump between definition and reference.
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Document-Structure.html#Document-Structure,
Chapter 2 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://sachachua.com/wp/2008/01/outlining-your-notes-with-org/,
Sacha Chua's tutorial}}


@node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
@chapter Tables

Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor.  Spreadsheet-like
calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
package
@ifinfo
(@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
(see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
calculator).
@end ifnotinfo

Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII.  Any line with
@samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
table.  @samp{|} is also the column separator.  A table might look like
this:

@smallexample
| Name  | Phone | Age |
|-------+-------+-----|
| Peter |  1234 |  17 |
| Anna  |  4321 |  25 |
@end smallexample

A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
@key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table.  @key{TAB} also moves to
the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
at the end of the table or before horizontal lines.  The indentation
of the table is set by the first line.  Any line starting with
@samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width.  So, to
create the above table, you would only type

@smallexample
|Name|Phone|Age|
|-
@end smallexample

@noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
fields.  Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
@kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.

When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
@key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields.  Also, when
typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
field is automatically made blank.

@table @kbd
@tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
@item C-c |
Convert the active region to table.  If every line contains at least one TAB
character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.  If every
line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.  If not,
lines are split at whitespace into fields.
@*
If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
table.  But it's easier just to start typing, like
@kbd{|Name|Phone|Age C-c @key{RET}}.

@tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
@item C-c C-c
Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
@c
@item @key{TAB}
Re-align the table, move to the next field.  Creates a new row if
necessary.
@c
@item S-@key{TAB}
Re-align, move to previous field.
@c
@item @key{RET}
Re-align the table and move down to next row.  Creates a new row if
necessary.

@tsubheading{Column and row editing}
@item M-@key{left}
@itemx M-@key{right}
Move the current column left/right.
@c
@item M-S-@key{left}
Kill the current column.
@c
@item M-S-@key{right}
Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
@c
@item M-@key{up}
@itemx M-@key{down}
Move the current row up/down.
@c
@item M-S-@key{up}
Kill the current row or horizontal line.
@c
@item M-S-@key{down}
Insert a new row above the current row.  With a prefix argument, the line is
created below the current one.
@c
@item C-c -
Insert a horizontal line below current row.  With a prefix argument, the line
is created above the current line.
@c
@item C-c @key{RET}
Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
below that line.
@c
@item C-c ^
Sort the table lines in the region.  The position of point indicates the
column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table.

@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Tables.html#Tables, Chapter 3 of the
manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/tables.php, Bastien's
table tutorial}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-spreadsheet-intro.php,
Bastien's spreadsheet tutorial}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.php, Eric's plotting tutorial}}

@node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
@chapter Hyperlinks

Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.

@menu
* Link format::			How links in Org are formatted
* Internal links::		Links to other places in the current file
* External links::		URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::		Creating, inserting and following
* Targeted links::		Point at a location in a file
@end menu

@node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
@section Link format

Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
clickable links.  The general link format, however, looks like this:

@smallexample
[[link][description]]       @r{or alternatively}           [[link]]
@end smallexample

@noindent
Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org will change
the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead of
@samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
@samp{[[link]]}.  To edit the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c
C-l} with the cursor on the link.

@node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
@section Internal links

If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
current file.  The most important case is a link like
@samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
@code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}.

Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
lead to a text search in the current file for the corresponding target which
looks like @samp{<<My Target>>}.

Internal links will be used to reference their destination, through links or
numbers, when possible.

@node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
@section External links

Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
logs.  External links are URL-like locators.  They start with a short
identifying string followed by a colon.  There can be no space after
the colon.  Here are some examples:

@smallexample
http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik          @r{on the web}
file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg     @r{file, absolute path}
/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg          @r{same as above}
file:papers/last.pdf                      @r{file, relative path}
file:projects.org                         @r{another Org file}
docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN              @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9   @r{Link to heading by ID}
news:comp.emacs                           @r{Usenet link}
mailto:adent@@galaxy.net                   @r{Mail link}
vm:folder                                 @r{VM folder link}
vm:folder#id                              @r{VM message link}
wl:folder#id                              @r{WANDERLUST message link}
mhe:folder#id                             @r{MH-E message link}
rmail:folder#id                           @r{RMAIL message link}
gnus:group#id                             @r{Gnus article link}
bbdb:R.*Stallman                          @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob                   @r{IRC link}
info:org:External%20links                 @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
@end smallexample

A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
format}), for example:

@smallexample
[[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
@end smallexample

@noindent
If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export
(@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable button.  If there
is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image will be
inlined into the exported HTML file.

@node Handling links, Targeted links, External links, Hyperlinks
@section Handling links

Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.

@table @kbd
@item C-c l
Store a link to the current location.  This is a @emph{global} command (you
must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
create a link.  The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
buffer (see below).
@c
@item C-c C-l
Insert a link.  This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.  You
can just type a link, or use history keys @key{up} and @key{down} to access
stored links.  You will be prompted for the description part of the link.
When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, file name completion is used to
link to a file.
@c
@item C-c C-l @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
link and description parts of the link.
@c
@item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1 @r{or} mouse-2
Open link at point.
@item C-c &
Jump back to a recorded position.  A position is recorded by the
commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}.  Using this
command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
previously recorded positions.
@c
@end table

@node Targeted links,  , Handling links, Hyperlinks
@section Targeted links

File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
particular location in the file when following a link.  This can be a
line number or a search option after a double colon.

Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
link, together with an explanation:

@smallexample
[[file:~/code/main.c::255]]                 @r{Find line 255}
[[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]                @r{Find @samp{<<My Target>>}}
[[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]            @r{Find entry with custom id}
@end smallexample

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Hyperlinks.html#Hyperlinks, Chapter 4 of the
manual}}

@node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
@chapter TODO Items

Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
but this is not required.}.  Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes!  With Org
mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item.  In this way,
information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
item emerged is always present.

Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
throughout your notes file.  Org mode compensates for this by providing
methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.

@menu
* Using TODO states::		Setting and switching states
* Multi-state workflows::	More than just on/off
* Progress logging::		Dates and notes for progress
* Priorities::			Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::		Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::			Tick-off lists
@end menu

@node Using TODO states, Multi-state workflows, TODO Items, TODO Items
@section Using TODO states

Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
@samp{TODO}, for example:

@smallexample
*** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end smallexample

@noindent
The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-t
Rotate the TODO state of the current item among

@smallexample
,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
'--------------------------------'
@end smallexample

The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).

@item S-@key{right}@r{/}@key{left}
Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.
@item C-c / t
View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}).  Folds the
buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy above
them.
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  Collects the TODO items from all agenda files
(@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer.  @xref{Global TODO list}, for
more information.
@item S-M-@key{RET}
Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
@end table

@noindent
Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes.  See the docstring of the
option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.

@node Multi-state workflows, Progress logging, Using TODO states, TODO Items
@section Multi-state workflows

You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
in the process of working on an item, for example:

@smalllisp
(setq org-todo-keywords
  '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
@end smalllisp

The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}).  If
you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
state.
With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED.  

Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
parallel.  For example, you may want to have the basic
@code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
DONE, but also does not require action).  Your setup would then look
like this:

@smalllisp
(setq org-todo-keywords
      '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
        (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
        (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
@end smalllisp

The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track of
which subsequence should be used for a given entry.  The example also shows
how to define keys for fast access of a particular state, by adding a letter
in parenthesis after each keyword---you will be prompted for the key after
@kbd{C-c C-t}.

To define TODO keywords that are valid only in a single file, use the
following text anywhere in the file.

@smallexample
#+TODO: TODO(t) | DONE(d)
#+TODO: REPORT(r) BUG(b) KNOWNCAUSE(k) | FIXED(f)
#+TODO: | CANCELED(c)
@end smallexample

After changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
the line to make the changes known to Org mode.

@node Progress logging, Priorities, Multi-state workflows, TODO Items
@section Progress logging

Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
a TODO item.  This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree.  For
information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
work time}.

@menu
* Closing items::		When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::	 When did the status change?
@end menu

@node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
@unnumberedsubsec Closing items

The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
item was finished.  This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}.

@smalllisp
(setq org-log-done 'time)
@end smalllisp

@noindent
Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
the headline.  If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
lognotedone}}

@smalllisp
(setq org-log-done 'note)
@end smalllisp

@noindent
You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.

@node Tracking TODO state changes,  , Closing items, Progress logging
@unnumberedsubsec Tracking TODO state changes

You might want to keep track of TODO state changes.  You can either record
just a timestamp, or a time-stamped note for a change.  These records will be
inserted after the headline as an itemized list.  When taking a lot of notes,
you might want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer.  Customize the
variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior.

For state logging, Org mode expects configuration on a per-keyword basis.
This is achieved by adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and
@samp{@@} (for a note) in parentheses after each keyword.  For example:
@smallexample
#+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
@end smallexample
@noindent
will define TODO keywords and fast access keys, and also request that a time
is recorded when the entry is set to DONE, and that a note is recorded when
switching to WAIT or CANCELED.  The same syntax works also when setting
@code{org-todo-keywords}.

@node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
@section Priorities

If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
it starts to make sense to prioritize them.  Prioritizing can be done by
placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this

@smallexample
*** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end smallexample

@noindent
Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and @samp{C}.
@samp{A} is the highest, @samp{B} the default if none is given.  Priorities
make a difference only in the agenda.

@table @kbd
@item @kbd{C-c ,}
Set the priority of the current headline.  Press @samp{A}, @samp{B} or
@samp{C} to select a priority, or @key{SPC} to remove the cookie.
@c
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Increase/decrease priority of current headline
@end table

@node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
@section Breaking tasks down into subtasks

It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
subtasks.  You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
with detailed subtasks on the tree.  To keep the overview over the fraction
of subtasks that are already completed, insert either @samp{[/]} or
@samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline.  These cookies will be updated each time
the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} on the
cookie.  For example:

@smallexample
* Organize Party [33%]
** TODO Call people [1/2]
*** TODO Peter
*** DONE Sarah
** TODO Buy food
** DONE Talk to neighbor
@end smallexample

@node Checkboxes,  , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
@section Checkboxes

Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox
by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}.  Checkboxes are not included in
the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a number
of simple steps.
Here is an example of a checkbox list.

@smallexample
* TODO Organize party [1/3]
  - [-] call people [1/2]
    - [ ] Peter
    - [X] Sarah
  - [X] order food
  - [ ] think about what music to play
@end smallexample

Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
checked.

@noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-c
Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox.
This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
(@pxref{Plain lists}).
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/TODO-Items.html#TODO-Items, Chapter 5 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/orgtutorial_dto.php, David
O'Toole's introductory tutorial}@*
@uref{http://members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/GTD/gtd_workflow.html,
Charles Cave's GTD setup}}

@node Tags, Properties, TODO Items, Top
@chapter Tags

An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines.  Org mode has extensive
support for tags.

Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
headline.  Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
@samp{@@}.  Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
@samp{:work:}.  Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.

@menu
* Tag inheritance::		Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::		How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::		Searching for combinations of tags
* Tag searches::		Searching for combinations of tags
@end menu

@node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
@section Tag inheritance

@i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees.  If a
heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
well.  For example, in the list

@smallexample
* Meeting with the French group      :work:
** Summary by Frank                  :boss:notes:
*** TODO Prepare slides for him      :action:
@end smallexample

@noindent
the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
@samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
explicitly marked with those tags.  You can also set tags that all entries in
a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
level zero that surrounds the entire file.  Use a line like this@footnote{As
with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
changes in the line.}:

@smallexample
#+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
@end smallexample

@node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
@section Setting tags

Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags.  There is
also a special command for inserting tags:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-q
Enter new tags for the current headline.  Org mode will either offer
completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
below.  After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
to @code{org-tags-column}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
things look nice.
@item C-c C-c
When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
@end table

Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}.  By
default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
currently used in the buffer.  You may also globally specify a hard list
of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}.  Finally you can set
the default tags for a given file with lines like

@smallexample
#+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
#+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
@end smallexample

By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
entering tags.  However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
method called @emph{fast tag selection}.  This allows you to select and
deselect tags with just a single key press.  For this to work well you should
assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags.  You can do this
globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
@file{.emacs} file.  For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
different files with @samp{:@@home:}.  In this case you can set something
like:

@smalllisp
(setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
@end smalllisp

@noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
can instead set the TAGS option line as:

@smallexample
#+TAGS: @@work(w)  @@home(h)  @@tennisclub(t)  laptop(l)  pc(p)
@end smallexample

@node Tag searches, Tag searches, Setting tags, Tags
@section Tag groups

@cindex group tags
@cindex tags, groups
In a set of mutually exclusive tags, the first tag can be defined as a
@emph{group tag}.  When you search for a group tag, it will return matches
for all members in the group.  In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
will display headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
group.  This makes tag searches and filters even more flexible.

You can set group tags by inserting a colon between the group tag and other
tags, like this:

@example
#+TAGS: @{ @@read : @@read_book  @@read_ebook @}
@end example

In this example, @samp{@@read} is a @emph{group tag} for a set of three
tags: @samp{@@read}, @samp{@@read_book} and @samp{@@read_ebook}.

You can also use the @code{:grouptags} keyword directly when setting
@var{org-tag-alist}:

@lisp
(setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil) 
                      ("@@read" . nil)
                      (:grouptags . nil)
                      ("@@read_book" . nil)
                      ("@@read_ebook" . nil)
                      (:endgroup . nil)))
@end lisp

@kindex C-c C-x q
@vindex org-group-tags
If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}.  If you
want to disable tag groups completely, set @var{org-group-tags} to nil.

@node Tag searches,  , Tag searches, Tags
@section Tag searches

Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
information into special lists.

@table @kbd
@item C-c \
@itemx C-c / m
Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search.  With a
@kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
@item C-c a m
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
@xref{Matching tags and properties}.
@item C-c a M
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
@end table

These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
@samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}.  The full syntax of the
search string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry
levels and properties.  For a complete description with many examples, see
@ref{Matching tags and properties}.

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Tags.html#Tags, Chapter 6 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://sachachua.com/wp/2008/01/tagging-in-org-plus-bonus-code-for-timeclocks-and-tags/,
Sacha Chua's article about tagging in Org-mode}}

@node Properties, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
@chapter Properties

Properties are key-value pairs associated with an entry.  They live in a
special drawer with the name @code{PROPERTIES}.  Each
property is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
first, and the value after it:

@smallexample
* CD collection
** Classic
*** Goldberg Variations
    :PROPERTIES:
    :Title:     Goldberg Variations
    :Composer:  J.S. Bach
    :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
    :NDisks:    1
    :END:
@end smallexample

You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}.  This special property is
@emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
the entire tree.  When allowed values are defined, setting the
corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
errors.  For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:

@smallexample
* CD collection
  :PROPERTIES:
  :NDisks_ALL:  1 2 3 4
  :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  :END:
@end smallexample
or globally using @code{org-global-properties}, or file-wide like this:
@smallexample
#+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
@end smallexample

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-x p
Set a property.  This prompts for a property name and a value.
@item C-c C-c d
Remove a property from the current entry.
@end table

To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).  The
syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
properties}.

@table @kbd
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Properties-and-Columns.html#Properties-and-Columns,
Chapter 7 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-column-view-tutorial.php,Bastien
Guerry's column view tutorial}}

@node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties, Top
@chapter Dates and Times

To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
a time.  The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode.

@menu
* Timestamps::			Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::		Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::	Planning your work
* Clocking work time::		Tracking how long you spend on a task
@end menu


@node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
@section Timestamps

A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
@samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 12:00-12:30>}.  A
timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
(@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).  We distinguish:

@noindent @b{Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment}@*
A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item.  This is just
like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda.

@smallexample
* Meet Peter at the movies
  <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
* Discussion on climate change
  <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
@end smallexample

@noindent @b{Timestamp with repeater interval}@*
A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y).  The
following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
@smallexample
* Pick up Sam at school
  <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
@end smallexample

@noindent @b{Diary-style sexp entries}@*
For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the
special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
package.  For example
@smallexample
* The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
@end smallexample

@noindent @b{Time/Date range}@*
Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range.
@smallexample
** Meeting in Amsterdam
   <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
@end smallexample

@noindent @b{Inactive timestamp}@*
Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
angular ones.  These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
@emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.

@smallexample
* Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  [2006-11-01 Wed]
@end smallexample


@node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
@section Creating timestamps

For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
format.  All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
format.

@table @kbd
@item C-c .
Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp.  When the cursor is
at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
timestamp instead of inserting a new one.  When this command is used twice in
succession, a time range is inserted.  With a prefix, also add the current
time. 
@c
@item C-c !
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
an agenda entry.
@c
@item S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
Change date at cursor by one day.
@c
@item S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp.  The cursor can be on a
year, month, day, hour or minute.  When the timestamp contains a time range
like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
shifting the time block with constant length.  To change the length, modify
the second time.
@end table

When Org mode prompts for a date/time, it will accept any string containing
some date and/or time information, and intelligently interpret the string,
deriving defaults for unspecified information from the current date and time.
You can also select a date in the pop-up calendar.  See the manual for more
information on how exactly the date/time prompt works.

@node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
@section Deadlines and scheduling

A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:

@noindent @b{DEADLINE}@*
Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
to be finished on that date.
@table @kbd
@item C-c C-d
Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp, in the line following the
headline.
@end table

On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda.  In
addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
approaching or missed deadline, starting
@code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
until the entry is marked DONE.  An example:

@smallexample
*** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
    The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
    DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
@end smallexample


@noindent @b{SCHEDULED}@*
Meaning: you are @i{planning to start working} on that task on the given
date@footnote{This is quite different from what is normally understood by
@i{scheduling a meeting}, which is done in Org-mode by just inserting a time
stamp without keyword.}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-s
Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp, in the line following the
headline.
@end table

The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE.  If you don't like
this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}.  In
addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
I.e.@: the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.

@smallexample
*** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
    SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
@end smallexample

Some tasks need to be repeated again and again.  Org mode helps to
organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
or plain timestamp.  In the following example
@smallexample
** TODO Pay the rent
   DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
@end smallexample
@noindent
the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
from that time.

@node Clocking work time,  , Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
@section Clocking work time

Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
project.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-x C-i
Start the clock on the current item (clock-in).  This inserts the CLOCK
keyword together with a timestamp.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix
argument, select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
@c
@item C-c C-x C-o
Stop the clock (clock-out).  This inserts another timestamp at the same
location where the clock was last started.  It also directly computes
the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
HH:MM}.
@item C-c C-x C-e
Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
@item C-c C-x C-x
Cancel the current clock.  This is useful if a clock was started by
mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
@item C-c C-x C-j
Jump to the entry that contains the currently running clock.  With a
@kbd{C-u} prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked
tasks.
@item C-c C-x C-r
Insert a dynamic block containing a clock
report as an Org-mode table into the current file.  When the cursor is
at an existing clock table, just update it.
@smallexample
#+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
#+END: clocktable
@end smallexample
@noindent
For details about how to customize this view, see @uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Clocking-work-time.html#Clocking-work-time,the manual}.
@item C-c C-c
Update dynamic block at point.  The cursor needs to be in the
@code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
@end table

The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
worked on or closed during a day.

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Dates-and-Times.html#Dates-and-Times,
Chapter 8 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/GTD/org_dates/, Charles
Cave's Date and Time tutorial}@*
@uref{http://doc.norang.ca/org-mode.html#Clocking, Bernt Hansen's clocking workflow}}

@node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
@chapter Capture - Refile - Archive

An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
Org defines a capture process to create tasks.  It stores files related to a
task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory.  Once in the system, tasks and
projects need to be moved around.  Moving completed project trees to an
archive file keeps the system compact and fast.

@menu
* Capture::			Capturing new stuff
* Refile and copy::		Moving a tree from one place to another
* Archiving::			What to do with finished projects
@end menu

@node Capture, Refile and copy, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
@section Capture

Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
excellent @file{remember.el} package.  It lets you store quick notes with
little interruption of your work flow.  Org lets you define templates for new
entries and associate them with different targets for storing notes.

@menu
* Setting up a capture location::  Where notes will be stored
* Using capture::		Commands to invoke and terminate capture
* Capture templates::		Define the outline of different note types
@end menu

@node Setting up a capture location, Using capture, Capture, Capture
@unnumberedsubsec Setting up a capture location

The following customization sets a default target@footnote{Using capture
templates, you can define more fine-grained capture locations, see
@ref{Capture templates}.} file for notes, and defines a global
key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a suggestion.}
for capturing new stuff.

@example
(setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
(define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
@end example

@node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up a capture location, Capture
@unnumberedsubsec Using capture

@table @kbd
@item C-c c
Start a capture process.  You will be placed into a narrowed indirect buffer
to edit the item.
@item C-c C-c
Once you are done entering information into the capture buffer, 
@kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture
process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction.
@item C-c C-w
Finalize by moving the entry to a refile location (@pxref{Refile and copy}).
@item C-c C-k
Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
@end table

@node Capture templates,  , Using capture, Capture
@unnumberedsubsec Capture templates

You can use templates to generate different types of capture notes, and to
store them in different places.  For example, if you would like
to store new tasks under a heading @samp{Tasks} in file @file{TODO.org}, and
journal entries in a date tree in @file{journal.org} you could
use:

@smallexample
(setq org-capture-templates
 '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
        "* TODO %?\n  %i\n  %a")
   ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
        "* %?\nEntered on %U\n  %i\n  %a")))
@end smallexample

@noindent In these entries, the first string is the key to reach the
template, the second is a short description.  Then follows the type of the
entry and a definition of the target location for storing the note.  Finally,
the template itself, a string with %-escapes to fill in information based on
time and context.

When you call @kbd{M-x org-capture}, Org will prompt for a key to select the
template (if you have more than one template) and then prepare the buffer like
@smallexample
* TODO
  [[file:@var{link to where you were when initiating capture}]]
@end smallexample

@noindent
During expansion of the template, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you
need one of these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.}
allow dynamic insertion of content.  Here is a small selection of the
possibilities, consult the manual for more.
@smallexample
%a          @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
%i          @r{initial content, the region when capture is called with C-u.}
%t          @r{timestamp, date only}
%T          @r{timestamp with date and time}
%u, %U      @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
@end smallexample

@node Refile and copy, Archiving, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
@section Refile and copy

When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile or copy some of the
entries into a different list, for example into a project.  Cutting, finding
the right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome.  To simplify
this process, you can use the following special command:

@table @kbd
@item C-c M-x
Copy the entry or region at point.  This command behaves like
@code{org-refile}, except that the original note will not be deleted.
@item C-c C-w
Refile the entry or region at point.  This command offers possible locations
for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion.  The item (or
all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.@*
By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details.
@item C-u C-c C-w
Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
@item C-u C-u C-c C-w
Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
@end table

@node Archiving,  , Refile and copy, Capture - Refile - Archive
@section Archiving

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
agenda.  Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
the archive file.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-x C-a
Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
@code{org-archive-default-command}.
@item C-c C-x C-s@ @r{or short} @ C-c $
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by @code{org-archive-location}.
@end table

The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change this,
see the documentation string of the variable
@code{org-archive-location}.  There is also an in-buffer option for
setting this variable, for example

@smallexample
#+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
@end smallexample

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Capture-_002d-Refile-_002d-Archive.html#Capture-_002d-Refile-_002d-Archive,
Chapter 9 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-protocol-custom-handler.php,
Sebastian Rose's tutorial for capturing from a web browser}}@uref{}@*

@node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
@chapter Agenda Views

Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and tagged
headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of files.  To
get an overview of open action items, or of events that are important for a
particular date, this information must be collected, sorted and displayed in
an organized way.  There are several different views, see below.

The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda buffer}.
This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the corresponding
locations in the original Org files, and even to edit these files remotely.
Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@menu
* Agenda files::		Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::		Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::	What is available out of the box?
* Agenda commands::		Remote editing of Org trees
* Custom agenda views::		Defining special searches and views
@end menu

@node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
@section Agenda files

The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
files}, the files listed in the variable
@code{org-agenda-files}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c [
Add current file to the list of agenda files.  The file is added to
the front of the list.  If it was already in the list, it is moved to
the front.  With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
@item C-c ]
Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
@item C-,
Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
@end table

@node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
@section The agenda dispatcher
The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}).  After
pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
command:
@table @kbd
@item a
The calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
@item t @r{/} T
A list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
@item m @r{/} M
A list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
tags and properties}).
@item L
The timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
@item s
A list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
@end table

@node Built-in agenda views, Agenda commands, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
@section The built-in agenda views

@menu
* Weekly/daily agenda::		The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::		All unfinished action items
* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::			Time-sorted view for single file
* Search view::			Find entries by searching for text
@end menu

@node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
@subsection The weekly/daily agenda

The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.

@table @kbd
@item C-c a a
Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files.  The agenda
shows the entries for each day.
@end table

Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold.  Org-mode
understands the syntax of the diary and allows you to use diary sexp entries
directly in Org files:

@smallexample
* Birthdays and similar stuff
#+CATEGORY: Holiday
%%(org-calendar-holiday)   ; special function for holiday names
#+CATEGORY: Ann
%%(diary-anniversary  5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
%%(diary-anniversary 10  2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
@end smallexample

Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility.  To add all
the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
@code{org-agenda-to-appt}.  See the docstring for details.

@node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
@subsection The global TODO list

The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
collected into a single place.  Remote editing of TODO items lets you
can change the state of a TODO entry with a single key press.  The commands
available in the TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer.
@item C-c a T
Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. 
@end table

@node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
@subsection Matching tags and properties

If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
or have properties (@pxref{Properties}), you can select headlines
based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer.  The match
syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
m}.  The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c a m
Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags.  The
command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
@samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}).  If you often need a specific search,
define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
@item C-c a M
Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items.
@end table

@subsubheading Match syntax

A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
OR.  @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}.  Parentheses are currently
not implemented.  Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value.  Each element
may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
sugar for positive selection.  The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
@samp{+} or @samp{-} is present.  Here are some examples, using only tags.

@table @samp
@item +work-boss
Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
@samp{:boss:}.
@item work|laptop
Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
@item work|laptop+night
Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
@samp{:night:}.
@end table

You may also test for properties at the same
time as matching tags, see the manual for more information.

@node Timeline, Search view, Matching tags and properties, Built-in agenda views
@subsection Timeline for a single file

The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org mode
file in a @emph{time-sorted view}.  The main purpose of this command is
to give an overview over events in a project.

@table @kbd
@item C-c a L
Show a time-sorted view of the Org file, with all time-stamped items.
When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
(scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
@end table

@node Search view,  , Timeline, Built-in agenda views
@subsection Search view

This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org mode entries.
It is particularly useful to find notes.

@table @kbd
@item C-c a s
This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching a substring
or specific words using a boolean logic.
@end table
For example, the search string @samp{computer equipment} will find entries
that contain @samp{computer equipment} as a substring. 
Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using Boolean
logic.  The search string @samp{+computer +wifi -ethernet -@{8\.11[bg]@}}
will search for note entries that contain the keywords @code{computer}
and @code{wifi}, but not the keyword @code{ethernet}, and which are also
not matched by the regular expression @code{8\.11[bg]}, meaning to
exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g. 

Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search
the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}.

@node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Built-in agenda views, Agenda Views
@section Commands in the agenda buffer

Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
file where they originate.  Commands are provided to show and jump to the
original entry location, and to edit the Org files ``remotely'' from
the agenda buffer.  This is just a selection of the many commands, explore
the @code{Agenda} menu and the manual for a complete list.

@table @kbd
@tsubheading{Motion}
@item n
Next line (same as @key{up} and @kbd{C-p}).
@item p
Previous line (same as @key{down} and @kbd{C-n}).
@tsubheading{View/Go to Org file}
@item mouse-3
@itemx @key{SPC}
Display the original location of the item in another window.
With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the
outline, not only the heading.
@c
@itemx @key{TAB}
Go to the original location of the item in another window.  Under Emacs
22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also work for this.
@c
@itemx @key{RET}
Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.
@c

@tsubheading{Change display}
@item o
Delete other windows.
@c
@item d @r{/} w
Switch to day/week view. 
@c
@item f @r{and} b
Go forward/backward in time to display the following
@code{org-agenda-current-span} days.  For example, if the display covers a
week, switch to the following/previous week.
@c
@item .
Go to today.
@c
@item j
Prompt for a date and go there.
@c
@item v l @ @r{or short} @ l
Toggle Logbook mode.  In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while
logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda, as are
entries that have been clocked on that day.  When called with a @kbd{C-u}
prefix, show all possible logbook entries, including state changes.
@c
@item r @r{or} g
Recreate the agenda buffer, to reflect the changes.
@item s
Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the locations of
IDs.

@tsubheading{Secondary filtering and query editing}

@item /
Filter the current agenda view with respect to a tag.  You are prompted for a
letter to select a tag.  Press @samp{-} first to select against the tag.

@item \
Narrow the current agenda filter by an additional condition.

@tsubheading{Remote editing (see the manual for many more commands)}

@item 0--9
Digit argument.
@c
@item t
Change the TODO state of the item, in the agenda and in the
org file.
@c
@item C-k
Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
to it in the original Org file.
@c
@item C-c C-w
Refile the entry at point.
@c
@item C-c C-x C-a @ @r{or short} @ a
Archive the subtree corresponding to the entry at point using the default
archiving command set in @code{org-archive-default-command}.
@c
@item C-c C-x C-s @ @r{or short} @ $
Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline.
@c
@item C-c C-s
Schedule this item, with prefix arg remove the scheduling timestamp
@c
@item C-c C-d
Set a deadline for this item, with prefix arg remove the deadline.
@c
@item S-@key{right} @r{and} S-@key{left}
Change the timestamp associated with the current line by one day.
@c
@item I
Start the clock on the current item.
@c
@item O / X
Stop/cancel the previously started clock.

@item J
Jump to the running clock in another window.
@end table

@node Custom agenda views,  , Agenda commands, Agenda Views
@section Custom agenda views

The main application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard
shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda
buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the current
buffer).
Custom commands are configured in the variable
@code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  You can customize this variable, for
example by pressing @kbd{C-c a C}.  You can also directly set it with
Emacs Lisp in @file{.emacs}.  The following example contains all valid
search types:

@smalllisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("w" todo "WAITING")
        ("u" tags "+boss-urgent")
        ("v" tags-todo "+boss-urgent")))
@end group
@end smalllisp

@noindent
The initial string in each entry defines the keys you have to press after the
dispatcher command @kbd{C-c a} in order to access the command.  Usually this
will be just a single character.  The second parameter is the search type,
followed by the string or regular expression to be used for the matching.
The example above will therefore define:

@table @kbd
@item C-c a w
as a global search for TODO entries with @samp{WAITING} as the TODO
keyword
@item C-c a u
as a global tags search for headlines marked @samp{:boss:} but not
@samp{:urgent:}
@item C-c a v
as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but limiting the search to
headlines that are also TODO items
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Agenda-Views.html#Agenda-Views, Chapter 10 of
the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-custom-agenda-commands.php,
Mat Lundin's tutorial about custom agenda commands}@*
@uref{http://www.newartisans.com/2007/08/using-org-mode-as-a-day-planner.html,
John Wiegley's setup}}

@node Markup, Exporting, Agenda Views, Top
@chapter Markup for rich export

When exporting Org-mode documents, the exporter tries to reflect the
structure of the document as accurately as possible in the backend.  Since
export targets like HTML, @LaTeX{}, or DocBook allow much richer formatting,
Org mode has rules on how to prepare text for rich export.  This section
summarizes the markup rules used in an Org-mode buffer.

@menu
* Structural markup elements::	The basic structure as seen by the exporter
* Images and tables::		Images, tables and caption mechanism
* Literal examples::		Source code examples with special formatting
* Include files::		Include additional files into a document
* Embedded @LaTeX{}::		@LaTeX{} can be freely used inside Org documents
@end menu

@node Structural markup elements, Images and tables, Markup, Markup
@section Structural markup elements

@menu
* Document title::		Where the title is taken from
* Headings and sections::	The document structure as seen by the exporter
* Table of contents::		The if and where of the table of contents
* Paragraphs::			Paragraphs
* Emphasis and monospace::	Bold, italic, etc.
* Comment lines::		What will *not* be exported
@end menu

@node Document title, Headings and sections, Structural markup elements, Structural markup elements
@subheading Document title

@noindent
The title of the exported document is taken from the special line

@smallexample
#+TITLE: This is the title of the document
@end smallexample

@node Headings and sections, Table of contents, Document title, Structural markup elements
@subheading Headings and sections

The outline structure of the document as described in @ref{Document
Structure}, forms the basis for defining sections of the exported document.
However, since the outline structure is also used for (for example) lists of
tasks, only the first three outline levels will be used as headings.  Deeper
levels will become itemized lists.  You can change the location of this
switch globally by setting the variable @code{org-export-headline-levels}, or on a
per-file basis with a line

@smallexample
#+OPTIONS: H:4
@end smallexample

@node Table of contents, Paragraphs, Headings and sections, Structural markup elements
@subheading Table of contents

The table of contents is normally inserted directly before the first headline
of the file.

@smallexample
#+OPTIONS: toc:2          (only to two levels in TOC)
#+OPTIONS: toc:nil        (no TOC at all)
@end smallexample

@node Paragraphs, Emphasis and monospace, Table of contents, Structural markup elements
@subheading Paragraphs, line breaks, and quoting

Paragraphs are separated by at least one empty line.  If you need to enforce
a line break within a paragraph, use @samp{\\} at the end of a line.

To keep the line breaks in a region, but otherwise use normal formatting, you
can use this construct, which can also be used to format poetry.

@smallexample
#+BEGIN_VERSE
 Great clouds overhead
 Tiny black birds rise and fall
 Snow covers Emacs

     -- AlexSchroeder
#+END_VERSE
@end smallexample

When quoting a passage from another document, it is customary to format this
as a paragraph that is indented on both the left and the right margin.  You
can include quotations in Org-mode documents like this:

@smallexample
#+BEGIN_QUOTE
Everything should be made as simple as possible,
but not any simpler -- Albert Einstein
#+END_QUOTE
@end smallexample

If you would like to center some text, do it like this:
@smallexample
#+BEGIN_CENTER
Everything should be made as simple as possible, \\
but not any simpler
#+END_CENTER
@end smallexample

@node Emphasis and monospace, Comment lines, Paragraphs, Structural markup elements
@subheading Emphasis and monospace

You can make words @b{*bold*}, @i{/italic/}, _underlined_, @code{=code=}
and @code{~verbatim~}, and, if you must, @samp{+strike-through+}.  Text
in the code and verbatim string is not processed for Org-mode specific
syntax, it is exported verbatim.  To insert a horizontal rules, use a line 
consisting of only dashes, and at least 5 of them.

@node Comment lines,  , Emphasis and monospace, Structural markup elements
@subheading Comment lines

Lines starting with zero or more whitespace characters followed by @samp{#}
are treated as comments and will never be exported.  Also entire subtrees
starting with the word @samp{COMMENT} will never be exported.  Finally,
regions surrounded by @samp{#+BEGIN_COMMENT} ... @samp{#+END_COMMENT} will
not be exported.

@table @kbd
@item C-c ;
Toggle the COMMENT keyword at the beginning of an entry.
@end table

@node Images and tables, Literal examples, Structural markup elements, Markup
@section Images and Tables

For Org mode tables, the lines before the first horizontal separator line
will become table header lines.  You can use the following lines somewhere
before the table to assign a caption and a label for cross references, and in
the text you can refer to the object with @code{[[tab:basic-data]]}:

@smallexample
#+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next table (or link)
#+NAME:   tbl:basic-data
   | ... | ...|
   |-----|----|
@end smallexample

Some backends allow you to directly include images into the exported
document.  Org does this, if a link to an image files does not have
a description part, for example @code{[[./img/a.jpg]]}.  If you wish to
define a caption for the image and maybe a label for internal cross
references, you sure that the link is on a line by itself precede it with:

@smallexample
#+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next figure link (or table)
#+NAME:   fig:SED-HR4049
[[./img/a.jpg]]
@end smallexample

The same caption mechanism applies to other structures than images and tables
(e.g., @LaTeX{} equations, source code blocks), provided the chosen export
back-end supports them.

@node Literal examples, Include files, Images and tables, Markup
@section Literal examples

You can include literal examples that should not be subjected to
markup.  Such examples will be typeset in monospace, so this is well suited
for source code and similar examples.

@smallexample
#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
Some example from a text file.
#+END_EXAMPLE
@end smallexample

For simplicity when using small examples, you can also start the example
lines with a colon followed by a space.  There may also be additional
whitespace before the colon:

@smallexample
Here is an example
   : Some example from a text file.
@end smallexample

For source code from a programming language, or any other text
that can be marked up by font-lock in Emacs, you can ask for it to
look like the fontified Emacs buffer

@smallexample
#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(defun org-xor (a b)
   "Exclusive or."
   (if a (not b) b))
#+END_SRC
@end smallexample

To edit the example in a special buffer supporting this language, use
@kbd{C-c '} to both enter and leave the editing buffer.

@node Include files, Embedded @LaTeX{}, Literal examples, Markup
@section Include files

During export, you can include the content of another file.  For example, to
include your @file{.emacs} file, you could use:

@smallexample
#+INCLUDE: "~/.emacs" src emacs-lisp
@end smallexample
@noindent
The optional second and third parameter are the markup (e.g.@: @samp{quote},
@samp{example}, or @samp{src}), and, if the markup is @samp{src}, the
language for formatting the contents.  The markup is optional, if it is not
given, the text will be assumed to be in Org mode format and will be
processed normally. @kbd{C-c '} will visit the included file.

@node Embedded @LaTeX{},  , Include files, Markup
@section Embedded @LaTeX{}

For scientific notes which need to be able to contain mathematical symbols
and the occasional formula, Org-mode supports embedding @LaTeX{} code into
its files.  You can directly use TeX-like macros for special symbols, enter
formulas and entire @LaTeX{} environments.

@smallexample
Angles are written as Greek letters \alpha, \beta and \gamma.  The mass if
the sun is M_sun = 1.989 x 10^30 kg.  The radius of the sun is R_@{sun@} =
6.96 x 10^8 m.  If $a^2=b$ and $b=2$, then the solution must be either
$a=+\sqrt@{2@}$ or $a=-\sqrt@{2@}$.

\begin@{equation@}
x=\sqrt@{b@}
\end@{equation@}
@end smallexample
@noindent  With
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/LaTeX-fragments.html#LaTeX-fragments,special
setup}, @LaTeX{} snippets will be included as images when exporting to HTML.

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Markup.html#Markup, Chapter 11 of the manual}}

@node Exporting, Publishing, Markup, Top
@chapter Exporting

Org-mode documents can be exported into a variety of other formats: ASCII
export for inclusion into emails, HTML to publish on the web, @LaTeX{}/PDF
for beautiful printed documents and DocBook to enter the world of many other
formats using DocBook tools.  There is also export to iCalendar format so
that planning information can be incorporated into desktop calendars.

@menu
* Export options::		Per-file export settings
* The export dispatcher::	How to access exporter commands
* ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export::	Exporting to flat files with encoding
* HTML export::			Exporting to HTML
* @LaTeX{} and PDF export::	Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
* DocBook export::		Exporting to DocBook
* iCalendar export::
@end menu

@node Export options, The export dispatcher, Exporting, Exporting
@section Export options

The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide
additional information.  These lines may be put anywhere in the file.
The whole set of lines can be inserted into the buffer with @kbd{C-c
C-e t}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e t
Insert template with export options, see example below.
@end table

@smallexample
#+TITLE:       the title to be shown (default is the buffer name)
#+AUTHOR:      the author (default taken from @code{user-full-name})
#+DATE:        a date, fixed, of a format string for @code{format-time-string}
#+EMAIL:       his/her email address (default from @code{user-mail-address})
#+DESCRIPTION: the page description, e.g.@: for the XHTML meta tag
#+KEYWORDS:    the page keywords, e.g.@: for the XHTML meta tag
#+LANGUAGE:    language for HTML, e.g.@: @samp{en} (@code{org-export-default-language})
#+OPTIONS:     H:2 num:t toc:t \n:nil @@:t ::t |:t ^:t f:t TeX:t ...
#+LINK_UP:     the ``up'' link of an exported page
#+LINK_HOME:   the ``home'' link of an exported page
#+LATEX_HEADER: extra line(s) for the @LaTeX{} header, like \usepackage@{xyz@}
@end smallexample

@node The export dispatcher, ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, Export options, Exporting
@section The export dispatcher

All export commands can be reached using the export dispatcher, which is a
prefix key that prompts for an additional key specifying the command.
Normally the entire file is exported, but if there is an active region that
contains one outline tree, the first heading is used as document title and
the subtrees are exported.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e
Dispatcher for export and publishing commands.
@end table

@node ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, HTML export, The export dispatcher, Exporting
@section ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export

ASCII export produces a simple and very readable version of an Org-mode
file, containing only plain ASCII.  Latin-1 and UTF-8 export augment the file
with special characters and symbols available in these encodings.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e a
Export as ASCII file.
@item C-c C-e n @ @ @r{and} @ @ C-c C-e N
Like the above commands, but use Latin-1 encoding.
@item C-c C-e u @ @ @r{and} @ @ C-c C-e U
Like the above commands, but use UTF-8 encoding.
@end table

@node HTML export, @LaTeX{} and PDF export, ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, Exporting
@section HTML export

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e h
Export as HTML file @file{myfile.html}.
@item C-c C-e b
Export as HTML file and immediately open it with a browser.
@end table

To insert HTML that should be copied verbatim to
the exported file use either

@smallexample
#+HTML: Literal HTML code for export
@end smallexample
@noindent or
@smallexample
#+BEGIN_HTML
All lines between these markers are exported literally
#+END_HTML
@end smallexample

@node @LaTeX{} and PDF export, DocBook export, HTML export, Exporting
@section @LaTeX{} and PDF export

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e l
Export as @LaTeX{} file @file{myfile.tex}.
@item C-c C-e p
Export as @LaTeX{} and then process to PDF.
@item C-c C-e d
Export as @LaTeX{} and then process to PDF, then open the resulting PDF file.
@end table

By default, the @LaTeX{} output uses the class @code{article}.  You can
change this by adding an option like @code{#+LaTeX_CLASS: myclass} in your
file.  The class must be listed in @code{org-latex-classes}.

Embedded @LaTeX{} as described in @ref{Embedded @LaTeX{}}, will be correctly
inserted into the @LaTeX{} file.  Similarly to the HTML exporter, you can use
@code{#+LaTeX:} and @code{#+BEGIN_LaTeX ... #+END_LaTeX} construct to add
verbatim @LaTeX{} code.

@node DocBook export, iCalendar export, @LaTeX{} and PDF export, Exporting
@section DocBook export

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e D
Export as DocBook file.
@end table

Similarly to the HTML exporter, you can use @code{#+DOCBOOK:} and
@code{#+BEGIN_DOCBOOK ... #+END_DOCBOOK} construct to add verbatim @LaTeX{}
code.

@node iCalendar export,  , DocBook export, Exporting
@section iCalendar export

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e i
Create iCalendar entries for the current file in a @file{.ics} file.
@item C-c C-e c
Create a single large iCalendar file from all files in
@code{org-agenda-files} and write it to the file given by
@code{org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file}.
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Exporting.html#Exporting, Chapter 12 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/images-and-xhtml-export.php,
Sebastian Rose's image handling tutorial}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-latex-export.php, Thomas
Dye's LaTeX export tutorial}
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-beamer/tutorial.php, Eric
Fraga's BEAMER presentation tutorial}}

@node Publishing, Working With Source Code, Exporting, Top
@chapter Publishing

Org includes a publishing management system that allows you to configure
automatic HTML conversion of @emph{projects} composed of interlinked org
files.  You can also configure Org to automatically upload your exported HTML
pages and related attachments, such as images and source code files, to a web
server.  For detailed instructions about setup, see the manual.

Here is an example:

@smalllisp
(setq org-publish-project-alist
      '(("org"
         :base-directory "~/org/"
         :publishing-directory "~/public_html"
         :section-numbers nil
         :table-of-contents nil
         :style "<link rel=\"stylesheet\"
                href=\"../other/mystyle.css\"
                type=\"text/css\"/>")))
@end smalllisp

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e C
Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to it.
@item C-c C-e P
Publish the project containing the current file.
@item C-c C-e F
Publish only the current file.
@item C-c C-e E
Publish every project.
@end table

Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed.  The above functions
normally only publish changed files.  You can override this and force
publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument to any of the commands
above.

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Publishing.html#Publishing, Chapter 13 of the
manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-publish-html-tutorial.php,
Sebastian Rose's publishing tutorial}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-jekyll.php, Ian Barton's
Jekyll/blogging setup}}

@node Working With Source Code, Miscellaneous, Publishing, Top
@chapter Working with source code
Org-mode provides a number of features for working with source code,
including editing of code blocks in their native major-mode, evaluation of
code blocks, tangling of code blocks, and exporting code blocks and their
results in several formats.

@subheading Structure of Code Blocks
The structure of code blocks is as follows:

@example
#+NAME: <name>
#+BEGIN_SRC <language> <switches> <header arguments>
  <body>
#+END_SRC
@end example

Where @code{<name>} is a string used to name the code block,
@code{<language>} specifies the language of the code block
(e.g.@: @code{emacs-lisp}, @code{shell}, @code{R}, @code{python}, etc...),
@code{<switches>} can be used to control export of the code block,
@code{<header arguments>} can be used to control many aspects of code block
behavior as demonstrated below, and @code{<body>} contains the actual source
code.

@subheading Editing source code
Use @kbd{C-c '} to edit the current code block.  This brings up a language
major-mode edit buffer containing the body of the code block.  Saving this
buffer will write the new contents back to the Org buffer.  Use @kbd{C-c '}
again to exit the edit buffer.

@subheading Evaluating code blocks
Use @kbd{C-c C-c} to evaluate the current code block and insert its results
in the Org-mode buffer.  By default, evaluation is only turned on for
@code{emacs-lisp} code blocks, however support exists for evaluating blocks
in many languages.  For a complete list of supported languages see the
manual.  The following shows a code block and its results.

@example
#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (+ 1 2 3 4)
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: 10
@end example

@subheading Extracting source code
Use @kbd{C-c C-v t} to create pure source code files by extracting code from
source blocks in the current buffer.  This is referred to as ``tangling''---a
term adopted from the literate programming community.  During ``tangling'' of
code blocks their bodies are expanded using @code{org-babel-expand-src-block}
which can expand both variable and ``noweb'' style references.  In order to
tangle a code block it must have a @code{:tangle} header argument, see the
manual for details.

@subheading Library of Babel
Use @kbd{C-c C-v l} to load the code blocks from an Org-mode files into the
``Library of Babel'', these blocks can then be evaluated from any Org-mode
buffer.  A collection of generally useful code blocks is distributed with
Org-mode in @code{contrib/library-of-babel.org}.

@subheading Header Arguments
Many aspects of the evaluation and export of code blocks are controlled
through header arguments.  These can be specified globally, at the file
level, at the outline subtree level, and at the individual code block level.
The following describes some of the header arguments.
@table @code
@item :var
The @code{:var} header argument is used to pass arguments to code blocks.
The values passed to arguments can be literal values, values from org-mode
tables and literal example blocks, or the results of other named code blocks.
@item :results
The @code{:results} header argument controls the @emph{collection},
@emph{type}, and @emph{handling} of code block results.  Values of
@code{output} or @code{value} (the default) specify how results are collected
from a code block's evaluation.  Values of @code{vector}, @code{scalar}
@code{file} @code{raw} @code{html} @code{latex} and @code{code} specify the
type of the results of the code block which dictates how they will be
incorporated into the Org-mode buffer.  Values of @code{silent},
@code{replace}, @code{prepend}, and @code{append} specify handling of code
block results, specifically if and how the results should be inserted into
the Org-mode buffer.
@item :session
A header argument of @code{:session} will cause the code block to be
evaluated in a persistent interactive inferior process in Emacs.  This allows
for persisting state between code block evaluations, and for manual
inspection of the results of evaluation.
@item :exports
Any combination of the @emph{code} or the @emph{results} of a block can be
retained on export, this is specified by setting the @code{:results} header
argument to @code{code} @code{results} @code{none} or @code{both}.
@item :tangle
A header argument of @code{:tangle yes} will cause a code block's contents to
be tangled to a file named after the filename of the Org-mode buffer.  An
alternate file name can be specified with @code{:tangle filename}.
@item :cache
A header argument of @code{:cache yes} will cause associate a hash of the
expanded code block with the results, ensuring that code blocks are only
re-run when their inputs have changed.
@item :noweb
A header argument of @code{:noweb yes} will expand ``noweb'' style references
on evaluation and tangling.
@item :file
Code blocks which output results to files (e.g.@: graphs, diagrams and figures)
can accept a @code{:file filename} header argument in which case the results
are saved to the named file, and a link to the file is inserted into the
Org-mode buffer.
@end table

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Literal-examples.html#Literal-examples,
Chapter 11.3 of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/index.php,
The Babel site on Worg}}

@node Miscellaneous, GNU Free Documentation License, Working With Source Code, Top
@chapter Miscellaneous

@menu
* Completion::			M-TAB knows what you need
* Clean view::			Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* MobileOrg::			Org-mode on the iPhone
@end menu

@node Completion, Clean view, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous
@section Completion

Org supports in-buffer completion with @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.  This type of
completion does not make use of the minibuffer.  You simply type a few
letters into the buffer and use the key to complete text right there.  For
example, this command will complete @TeX{} symbols after @samp{\}, TODO
keywords at the beginning of a headline, and tags after @samp{:} in a
headline.

@node Clean view, MobileOrg, Completion, Miscellaneous
@section A cleaner outline view

Some people find it noisy and distracting that the Org headlines start with a
potentially large number of stars, and that text below the headlines is not
indented.  While this is no problem when writing a @emph{book-like} document
where the outline headings are really section headings, in a more
@emph{list-oriented} outline, indented structure is a lot cleaner:

@smallexample
@group
* Top level headline             |    * Top level headline
** Second level                  |      * Second level
*** 3rd level                    |        * 3rd level
some text                        |          some text
*** 3rd level                    |        * 3rd level
more text                        |          more text
* Another top level headline     |    * Another top level headline
@end group
@end smallexample

@noindent
If you are using at least Emacs 23.1.50.3 and version 6.29 of Org, this kind
of view can be achieved dynamically at display time using
@code{org-indent-mode}, which will prepend intangible space to each line.
You can turn on @code{org-indent-mode} for all files by customizing the
variable @code{org-startup-indented}, or you can turn it on for individual
files using

@smallexample
#+STARTUP: indent
@end smallexample

If you want a similar effect in earlier version of Emacs and/or Org, or if
you want the indentation to be hard space characters so that the plain text
file looks as similar as possible to the Emacs display, Org supports you by
helping to indent (with @key{TAB}) text below each headline, by hiding
leading stars, and by only using levels 1, 3, etc to get two characters
indentation for each level.  To get this support in a file, use

@smallexample
#+STARTUP: hidestars odd
@end smallexample

@node MobileOrg,  , Clean view, Miscellaneous
@section MobileOrg

@i{MobileOrg} is the name of the mobile companion app for Org mode, currently
available for iOS and for Android.  @i{MobileOrg} offers offline viewing and
capture support for an Org mode system rooted on a ``real'' computer.  It
does also allow you to record changes to existing entries.

The @uref{http://mobileorg.ncogni.to/, iOS implementation} for the
@i{iPhone/iPod Touch/iPad} series of devices, was developed by Richard
Moreland. Android users should check out
@uref{http://wiki.github.com/matburt/mobileorg-android/, MobileOrg Android}
by Matt Jones.  The two implementations are not identical but offer similar
features.

@seealso{
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/Miscellaneous.html#Miscellaneous, Chapter 15
of the manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/manual/MobileOrg.html#MobileOrg, Appendix B of the
manual}@*
@uref{http://orgmode.org/orgcard.pdf,Key reference card}}


@node GNU Free Documentation License,  , Miscellaneous, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi


@bye

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