This is the official manual for the latest Org-mode release.

- Org Mode Manual
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Document Structure
- 3 Tables
- 4 Hyperlinks
- 5 TODO Items
- 6 Tags
- 7 Properties and Columns
- 8 Dates and Times
- 9 Capture-Refile-Archive
- 10 Agenda Views
- 11 Markup
- 12 Exporting
- 13 Publishing
- 14 Source Code
- 15 Miscellaneous
- A Hacking
- B MobileOrg
- C History and Thanks
- Main Index
- Key Index
- Variable Index

A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general definition looks like this:

%[width]property[(title)][{summary-type}]

Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:

widthAn integer specifying the width of the column in characters. If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.propertyThe property that should be edited in this column. Special properties representing meta data are allowed here as well (see Special properties)titleThe header text for the column. If omitted, the property name is used. {summary-type} The summary type. If specified, the column values for parent nodes are computed from the children. Supported summary types are: {+} Sum numbers in this column. {+;%.1f} Like ‘+’, but format result with ‘%.1f’. {$} Currency, short for ‘+;%.2f’. {:} Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours. {X} Checkbox status, ‘[X]’ if all children are ‘[X]’. {X/} Checkbox status, ‘[n/m]’. {X%} Checkbox status, ‘[n%]’. {min} Smallest number in column. {max} Largest number. {mean} Arithmetic mean of numbers. {:min} Smallest time value in column. {:max} Largest time value. {:mean} Arithmetic mean of time values. {@min} Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds). {@max} Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds). {@mean} Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds). {est+} Add low-high estimates.

Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the same summary information.

The `est+`

summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
5–6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
1–10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.

When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, `est+`

adds the
statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, `est+`

estimates the
full job more realistically, at 10–15 days.

Numbers are right-aligned when a format specifier with an explicit width like
`%5d`

or `%5.1f`

is used.

Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed values.

:COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?){X} %Owner %11Status \^{1}%10Time_Estimate{:} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" "" :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"

The first column, ‘`%25ITEM`’, means the first 25 characters of the
item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
column definition with the ‘`ITEM`’ specifier. The other specifiers
create columns ‘`Owner`’ with a list of names as allowed values, for
‘`Status`’ with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
field ‘`Approved`’. When no width is given after the ‘`%`’
character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
to fully display all values. The ‘`Approved`’ column does have a
modified title (‘`Approved?`’, with a question mark). Summaries will
be created for the ‘`Time_Estimate`’ column by adding time duration
expressions like HH:MM, and for the ‘`Approved`’ column, by providing
an ‘`[X]`’ status if all children have been checked. The
‘`CLOCKSUM`’ and ‘`CLOCKSUM_T`’ columns are special, they lists the
sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
today.

[1] Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line—it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.