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Org-babel support for tclsh


org-babel-tcl allows Tcl code to be executed directly within embedded code blocks in Org-mode documents. These code blocks and its results can be included as the document is exported to documentation formats.

The following provides instructions and some examples of tclsh usage. Since babel is simply allowing native code to run inside of Org-mode, all tclsh documentation is applicable and valid.

Requirements and Setup

To get Tcl up and running, you need the tclsh interpreter installed in your system or any of its variants:

  • wish if you want GUI support
  • expect for interactions with the console
  • ns2 to run network simulations from Org-mode.

The variable org-babel-tcl-command defines the value of the interpreter that will be run. It defaults to tclsh.

To enable support for Tcl, it must be enabled as part of your initialization script. For example:

;; set up babel support
(require 'org)
(require 'ob-tcl)
;; add additional languages with (require 'ob-language)

Babel Header Arguments

Babel block headers are used to pass various arguments to control the results of the executed code. The complete list of header arguments is covered in the Org-mode manual; for now, some options frequently used for tclsh are:

  • :exports {code, results, both, none}
    • When the code is run and the document exported (e.g. to HTML or \LaTeX PDF), what should appear? Just the code block itself? Only the produced output (in this case a plot of some sort)? Both the code and the accompanying results? Or nothing?
  • :results {value, output}
    • Controls the results of the output. Only two alternatives are allowed:
    • Returns the value of the last return statement in the code. and places in #+RESULTS:.
    • Returns the value of the puts or write statement and places those in #+RESULTS:.

Overview and Use

Tcl is a complete language that provides a rich set of facilities. Describing these are beyond the scope of this manual. However, the examples provided in this guide should be easy enough to follow to those that have program in other languages in the past. If you are interested in learning about Tcl, please refer to the official documents or books on the subject. 1

Through this overview, Any of the commands typed in code font below should be assumed to reside in a babel code block (between #+begin_src tcl and #+end_src).

To run a Tcl block and produce a result from the babel block move the cursor anywhere in the code block and press C-c C-c (Ctrl+C followed by Ctrl+C) and type "yes" in the minibuffer when asked about executing the code.

Basic Use

The easiest way to use this feature is to create a block of #+begin_src tcl / #+end_src and enter your commands there. The default is to return a value being this the last value from a return statement.

#+begin_src tcl
  return "Hello"

: Hello

In this example, pressing C-c C-c will result in the value "Hello" being written in the #+RESULTS:. Placing a puts or write statement will not show up in the #RESULTS: To change this behavior, the keyword :results output must be written in the header. For example:

#+begin_src tcl :results output
puts "Hi"
return "Hello"

: Hi

Named Procedures and Tables

The Babel Tcl plugin supports the use of named procedures, calls and table operations. The use of these are detailed in the Org Manual. This manual will describe how they are used within the context of a Tcl program.

A variable can be passed to a Tcl program which can be used to call the aforementioned program later on in your org document. The following example is a program that just writes the value of the variable.

#+name: reflector(x=0)
#+begin_src tcl :results output
puts $x

#+RESULTS: reflector
: 0

Pressing C-c C-c will result in the default value to be written. Calling the named block later on with a different value will result on that value been written in the #RESULTS: For example:

#+call: reflector(20)
#+RESULTS: reflector(20)
: 20

This is not constrained only to :results output headers. Procedures in which the result is a value can also be used. For example:

#+name: square(x=0)
#+begin_src tcl :results value
return [expr $x * $x]

#+RESULTS: square
: 0

Executing it with C-c C-c with different values will result to that value being returned. For example:

#+call: square(x=2)

#+RESULTS: square(x=2)
: 4

Sending Tcl code as part of the parameter is also supported. For example:

#+call: square(x=[expr 2 + 10])

#+RESULTS: square(x=[expr 2 + 10])
: 144

Table processing is supported in Tcl blocks. The resultant data structure in Tcl is a list of lists. For example:

#+tblname: testtbl
| 1 | 2 |
| 3 | 4 |

#+name: processtbl(x=0)
#+begin_src tcl :results output
puts $x
foreach y $x {
  puts [expr [lindex $y 0] * [lindex $y 1]]

The program prints the table as a list, add the first and second values and writing the results. Calling this block later on in the Org document will result in the following output.

#+call: processtbl(x=testtbl)

#+RESULTS: processtbl(x=testtbl)
: {1  2}  {3  4}
: 2
: 12



Tcl manual downloads and further information can be obtained from: http://www.tcl.tk/doc/

Documentation from the orgmode.org/worg/ website (either in its HTML format or in its Org format) is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3 or later. The code examples and css stylesheets are licensed under the GNU General Public License v3 or later.