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4.4 External Links

Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.

http://www.astro.uva.nl/=dominikon the web
doi:10.1000/182DOI for an electronic resource
file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpgfile, absolute path
/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpgsame as above
file:papers/last.pdffile, relative path
./papers/last.pdfsame as above
file:/ssh:me@some.where:papers/last.pdffile, path on remote machine
/ssh:me@some.where:papers/last.pdfsame as above
file:sometextfile::NNNfile, jump to line number
file:projects.organother Org file
file:projects.org::some wordstext search in Org file29
file:projects.org::*task titleheading search in Org file
file+sys:/path/to/fileopen via OS, like double-click
file+emacs:/path/to/fileforce opening by Emacs
docview:papers/last.pdf::NNNopen in doc-view mode at page
id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9link to heading by ID
news:comp.emacsUsenet link
mailto:adent@galaxy.netmail link
mhe:folderMH-E folder link
mhe:folder#idMH-E message link
rmail:folderRmail folder link
rmail:folder#idRmail message link
gnus:groupGnus group link
gnus:group#idGnus article link
bbdb:R.*StallmanBBDB link (with regexp)
irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bobIRC link
info:org#External linksInfo node link
shell:ls *.orgshell command
elisp:org-agendainteractive Elisp command
elisp:(find-file "Elisp.org")Elisp form to evaluate

On top of these built-in link types, additional ones are available through the ‘contrib/’ directory (see Installation). For example, these links to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding libraries from the ‘contrib/’ directory:

vm:folderVM folder link
vm:folder#idVM message link
vm://myself@some.where.org/folder#idVM on remote machine
vm-imap:account:folderVM IMAP folder link
vm-imap:account:folder#idVM IMAP message link
wl:folderWanderlust folder link
wl:folder#idWanderlust message link

For information on customizing Org to add new link types, see Adding Hyperlink Types.

A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (see Link Format), for example:

[[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]

If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export (see HTML Export) inlines the image as a clickable button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image is inlined into the exported HTML file.

Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in ‘bbdb:Richard Stallman’), or if you need to remove ambiguities about the end of the link, enclose the link in square or angular brackets.


Footnotes

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The actual behavior of the search depends on the value of the variable org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline. If its value is nil, then a fuzzy text search is done. If it is t, then only the exact headline is matched, ignoring spaces and statistic cookies. If the value is query-to-create, then an exact headline is searched; if it is not found, then the user is queried to create it.


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