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4.3 External links

Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.             on the web
doi:10.1000/182                              DOI for an electronic resource
file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg        file, absolute path
/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg             same as above
file:papers/last.pdf                         file, relative path
./papers/last.pdf                            same as above
file:/ssh:myself@some.where:papers/last.pdf  file, path on remote machine
/ssh:myself@some.where:papers/last.pdf       same as above
file:sometextfile::NNN                       file, jump to line number                            another Org file words                text search in Org file(31)*task title               heading search in Org file(32)
docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN                 open in doc-view mode at page
id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9      Link to heading by ID
news:comp.emacs                              Usenet link                      Mail link
mhe:folder                                   MH-E folder link
mhe:folder#id                                MH-E message link
rmail:folder                                 RMAIL folder link
rmail:folder#id                              RMAIL message link
gnus:group                                   Gnus group link
gnus:group#id                                Gnus article link
bbdb:R.*Stallman                             BBDB link (with regexp)
irc:/                      IRC link
info:org#External links                      Info node or index link
shell:ls *.org                               A shell command
elisp:org-agenda                             Interactive Elisp command
elisp:(find-file-other-frame "")    Elisp form to evaluate

On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the contrib/ directory (see Installation). For example, these links to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding libraries from the contrib/ directory:

vm:folder                                    VM folder link
vm:folder#id                                 VM message link
vm://         VM on remote machine
vm-imap:account:folder                       VM IMAP folder link
vm-imap:account:folder#id                    VM IMAP message link
wl:folder                                    WANDERLUST folder link
wl:folder#id                                 WANDERLUST message link

For customizing Org to add new link types Adding hyperlink types.

A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (see Link format), for example:

[[][GNU Emacs]]

If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export (see HTML export) will inline the image as a clickable button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.

Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in ‘bbdb:Richard Stallman’), or if you need to remove ambiguities about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.



The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of the option org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline. If its value is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the value is query-to-create, then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.


Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline is query-to-create, then the user will be queried to create it.

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